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글 작성자 :  운영자 2005-09-24 11:29:39 | 조회 : 2546 | 추천 : 0

[과학의 향기] 귀하디 귀한 천연 자주색

색을 이용한 역사는 아주 오래됐다. 프랑스의 라스코동굴에는 기원전 1만5000년 전에 빨강.노랑.갈색.흑색 등으로 그려진 벽화가 아직까지도 그 선명한 색을 자랑하고 있다.

제조 방법이 기록으로 남아 있는 가장 오래된 염료는 로마 시대에 티리안 퍼플 또는 로열 퍼플 등으로 알려졌던 자주색 천연 염료다. 로마시대에 주로 황제나 고급 귀족들의 의복 염색에 사용됐다. 지중해에서 많이 자라는 달팽이 내 아가미 샘에서 분비되는 맑은 체액을 원료로 만들었다.

이 염료 1.4g을 얻기 위해 그리스의 티레 해변에서 1만2000마리의 달팽이를 잡았다는 기록이 있다. 이 때문에 영어에 'Born To The Purple'이라는 속담이 생겼으며 이는 매우 귀한 신분으로 태어났다는 뜻으로 사용된다. 18세기에는 코치닐이라는 붉은색 염료가 사용되었다. 이는 멕시코에서 자라는 선인장에 기생하는 곤충에서 추출한 것으로, 1kg의 염료를 얻는 데 이 곤충 10만 마리를 잡아야 했다.

천연 염료는 대량 생산이 어려워 희소가치가 높았다. 따라서 왕이나 귀족만이 사용할 수 있었다. 로마 시대에는 정부에서 운영하는 염료 공장 밖에서 로열 퍼플을 만드는 사람은 사형에 처할 정도였다.

천연염료는 보조물질인 매염제(媒染劑)가 있어야만 염색할 수 있다. 천연 매염제로는 식물을 태운 잿물, 식물의 수피나 탄닌, 사과나 오미자의 과일즙, 금속성분을 포함한 경수, 사람을 포함한 동물의 오줌 등이 있다.

합성 매염제로는 철.구리.알루미늄.주석.크롬 등이 있다. 최근 염색 과정에서 발생하는 중금속 폐수처리 등의 문제점을 극복하기 위해 천연염료에 다시 관심이 모이고 있다.

<한국과학기술정보연구원 제공>

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